An Overview of Qing Glass

27 court was on a massive, partly institutionalized scale, and carried with it both social and political significance. Even gifts received as tribute by the Emperor were often re-distributed by the court as gifts to others. 32 In 1747 are recorded some interesting cameo overlay combinations, including red and green overlay on yellow, and red overlay on opaque blue. Also mentioned is a speckled opaque white. 33 This last is the earliest reference so far recorded of what is probably the snowstorm ground of so many overlay glass snuff bottles from the Qianlong period ( fig. 39 , although this particular bottle is probably not from the early Qianlong reign). The series of octagonal-faceted forms, which we saw in figures 16–21 continued into the Qianlong period, and beyond, although the smaller range appears to be among the earlier ones, and the size seems to generally increase during the dynasty. Several Qianlong-marked examples are known among others from the Jiaqing and later reigns. A small, ruby-red bottle such as that in figure 40 , however, which is close in size and similar in form to the palace-enameled version in the J & J Collection, and confidently dated to the first fifteen years of the Qianlong reign, is a likely candidate for an early Qianlong date. 34 Figures 41 and 42 , the latter with a Qianlong reign mark, are part of a group of exquisitely well carved Imperial yellow bottles decorated with archaistic designs which can be attributed to early in the reign, and figure 43 is also likely to be early. It is colored with ruby red made from colloidal gold, still possibly a closely guarded court recipe at the time, and extensively crizzled on the inside. Figure 44 is an early blue overlay, of an unusual style and, again, exquisite carving, which might even be earlier than Qianlong. NOTES: 1 Wang Shizhen (1634–1711), Xiangzu biji. 2 Moss, Graham, Tsang, A Treasury of Chinese Snuff Bottles, Vol. 5, Glass (Hong Kong: Herald International Ltd., 2000). 3 Emily Byrne Curtis, “ Glass For K ’ ang Hsi ’ s Court, ” Arts of Asia (September–October 1991). 4 Yang Boda, “ A Brief Account of Qing Dynasty Glass, ” in The Robert H. Clague Collection. Chinese Glass of the Qing Dynasty 1644–1911 (Phoenix Art Museum, 1987), 80. 5 Ibid., 79. 6 Ibid., 77. 7 Zhang Rong, “ Imperial Glass of the Yongzheng Reign, ” in Elegance and Radiance. Grandeur in Qing Glass. The K. F. Lee Collection (Hong Kong: The Art Museum, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2000), 64. 8 Yang Boda, op. cit., 79. 9 Zhang Rong, op. cit., 64 and 65. 10 Yang Boda, op. cit., 78. 11 For one of a pair of vases from the Sloane bequest, see JICSBS 30 (Summer 1998): 14, fig. 33; and for either the same one or its pair, R. Soame Jenyns, Chinese Art . The Minor Arts II, 145, no. 81. 12 Ethnographic Objects in The Royal Danish Kunstkammer 1650–1800 (Nationalmuseet), nos. Ebc 71–82, 218. 13 Yang Boda, op. cit., 78. 14 Court Painting of the Qing Dynasty (The Palace Museum, Beijing: Cultural Relics Publishing House, 1992), no. 41. 15 In 1723 (first month, ninth day) there is a record of one hundred and twenty-six snuff bottles of various colors, all fitted with gilt stoppers and ivory spoons (Zhang Rong, op. cit., 65). 16 Zhang Weiyong, “ The Imperial Workshops of the Ming and Qing Dynasties and the Boshan Glass Works, ” in Elegance and Radiance. Grandeur in Qing Glass. The Andrew K. F. Lee Collection (Hong Kong: The Art Museum, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2000), 74. 17 Zhang Rong, op. cit., 64. 18 Ibid., 65. 19 Ibid., 64. 20 Ibid., 67. 21 Ibid., 66. 22 Peter Y. K. Lam, “ The Glasshouse of the Qing Imperial Household Department, ” in Elegance and Radiance. Grandeur in Qing Glass. The K. F. Lee Collection (Hong Kong: The Art Museum, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2000) , 52, archive no. 3375. 23 Luan Jingli, ed., Masterpieces of Snuff Bottles in the Palace Museum (Beijing: The Forbidden City Publishing House of the Palace Museum, 1995), 25. 24 Ibid., 18. 25 Ibid., 29. 26 Peter Y. K. Lam, op. cit., 52, archive no. 3382. 27 Ibid., 52–59 28 Emily Byrne Curtis, “ Notes on Qing Glassmaking: D ’ Incarville ’ s ‘Catalogue Alphabétique, ’” Journal of Glass Studies 39 (Corning, New York: Corning Museum of Glass, 1997) , 73. 29 Luan Jingli, ed., op. cit., 26. 30 Moss, Graham, Tsang, The Art of the Chinese Snuff Bottle. The J & J Collection (New York: Weatherhill, 1993), 122–123 . 31 Peter Y. K. Lam, op. cit., 52, archive no. 3402. 32 Ibid., 54–55, archive no. 3412, 3413. 33 Ibid., 55, archive no. 3414, 3415 and 3416. 34 Moss, Graham, Tsang, The Art of the Chinese Snuff Bottle , no. 185.

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